Why do I need to log in?
A. General Information
B. SET UP
C. Getting Decimal Answers by Disabling WriteView
D. Complex Numbers
E. Solve a Quadratic or Cubic Equation
F. Solve a System of Two or Three Equations
G. Solve a System of Four Equations
H. One Variable Statistics and Frequency Distributions
I. Regression (Line of Best Fit)
J. Calculate a Derivative
K. Calculate a Definite Integral
Starting in Fall 2010, the calculator that will be supported and used in all School of Technology first-year math courses is the Sharp EL-W516 WriteView calculator. It is available in the college bookstore.
General Information about the Sharp EL-W516 Calculator
DON’T THROW THOSE INSTRUCTIONS AWAY!!
The Sharp EL-W516 WriteView calculator uses multiple lines to display fractions as fractions, roots as roots, integrals as integrals, matrices as matrices, and so on. This allows you to enter your calculations exactly as they are shown on your page!
Results in WriteView mode are displayed as fractions, roots, etc. An important button is the "CHANGE" button at the middle right of the keypad. Pressing "CHANGE" will change the form of your answer from mixed fraction, to improper fraction, to decimal, and back to fraction.
The calculator has six different modes: NORMAL, STAT (statistics), DRILL (math drills), CPLX (complex numbers), MATRIX (matrices), LIST, and EQUATION (to solve various types of equations). Each has its own purpose and will be used at different points in your course. Switch modes by hitting the MODE button and then pressing the number of the corresponding mode (e.g. 1 for STAT). Use the up/down arrows to show all of the options. In general, use NORMAL mode (MODE 0).
The 2ndF button allows access to secondary functions (written in orange above the buttons). For example, to find the square root of 5 hit the 2ndF button then the x ^{2} button. A root sign will appear in the display. Hit 5 and then = to calculate the square root of 5 (2.236...). To turn off the calculator hit 2ndF then ON/C.
Using brackets can make calculations easier to perform. Sometimes they are necessary to get the correct value. This is because the calculator follows the BEDMAS order of operations. An example of this would be dividing 1 by 2+3. The correct answer is 0.2. If you type this in as 1÷2+3 the answer will be 3.5 which is incorrect. The calculator divided 1 by 2 and then added 3 to the result. We want 1 divided by 2+3 so we enclose the 2+3 in brackets. Typing it in as 1÷(2+3) we get 0.2, the correct answer. This is a simple example of how brackets can be used in complicated calculations.
The UP/DOWN/LEFT/RIGHT keys will be used when entering more complicated calculations. These will allow you to move up to exponents, down in fractions, outside of roots, etc.
You can review previous calculations in NORMAL mode by hitting the LEFT arrow, or by hitting ON/C and then the UP/DOWN arrows. This is handy for going back to check that your calculation was entered correctly, or for changing a number when performing multiple calculations with the same formula.
This allows you to change which unit your calculator uses for angles, the format it uses to display numbers, and allows you to turn off the WriteView display.
To enter SET UP press the 2ndF button followed by MATH. <SET UP> should now be displayed with 5 options.
This changes what unit your calculator uses for angles: degrees, radians, or grads. There are two ways to change how your calculator displays angles.
To use the SET UP route, press 0 and then ENTER to select DRG. Now press 0 DEG, 1 RAD, or 2 GRAD to select the mode you want.
A shortcut is accessible by pressing 2ndF and then the decimal point. That accesses DRG►.
Note: You can tell which mode you are in by looking at the top of your display. It will say DEG, RAD, or GRAD.
This changes the format used to display numbers: fixed, scientific, engineering, or normal mode.
In SET UP, press 1 and then ENTER. Now press the number for the format you want.
0 - FIX. This choice fills the screen with decimal places. You will be asked to enter a TAB SETTING between 0 and 9. This allows you to choose how many decimal places you want the calculator to use for all numbers.
1 - The SCI choice changes your calculator into Scientific Notation mode. You will be asked to enter a SIG. SETTING between 0 and 9. This allow you to choose how many significant digits you want the calculator to display for all numbers.
2 - The ENG choice changes your calculator into Engineering mode. You will be asked to enter a TAB SETTING between 0 and 9. This allows you to choose how many digits you want the calculator to display for all numbers.
3, 4 - The NORM1 and NORM2 choices get your calculator out of any of these modes back to looking a “normal calculator” look. NORM1 should be your choice.
This changes the display format your calculator uses. There are two options:
0: W-VIEW - WriteView uses multiple lines to display fractions as fractions, roots as roots, and so on. Results in this mode are displayed as fractions, roots, etc. You can get the decimal answer by pressing CHANGE until the decimal answer appears.
1: LINE - Linear mode uses a single line so fractions are displayed as 4r5, and so on. This mode makes the calculator display just like the Sharp EL-546W. Results are displayed as decimals (unless fractions were used).
The Sharp EL-W516's WriteView display uses multiple lines to display mathematics as it is seen on a page. Fractions are shown as fractions, exponents as exponents, integrals as integrals, and so on. This makes entering calculations easier, and reduces the chance of errors.
At the same time, calculation results are displayed as fractions (or with roots or pi) whenever possible. Pressing the CHANGE button repeatedly will change these to decimal answers.
If you prefer to always get decimal results you need to disable the WriteView display mode. Doing this will make the calculator display like the Sharp EL-546W when in NORMAL mode. Answers will be given as decimals, but fractions will no longer look like fractions. In general, you will still need to follow the EL-W516 instructions.
Press 2ndF and MATH to enter SET UP. Now press 2 for EDITOR.
There are now two options: 0: W-VIEW, and 1: LINE
Press 1 for Linear display mode to disable the WriteView display, and to get decimals as your answers.
To return to the WriteView display, go through the steps above but press 0 for W-VIEW.
NOTE: It is not possible to have decimals as the default answer form when in WriteView mode.
The MODE button allows you to enter and calculate with complex numbers in polar or rectangular form. Choose MODE and then the "3" CPLX option.
Once you do that, you may choose polar or rectangular formats. To choose polar format, press 2ndF and the 8 key to access →rθ. You will see an “rθ” appear on the left side of the screen. To choose rectangular format, press 2ndF and the 9 key to access →xy. You will see an “xy” appear on the left side of the screen.
That means the “xy” is on the left side of the screen. This does not affect the normal arithmetic calculations you need to do, but it does activate the buttons on the calculator used for complex number calculations. One of those is the “i” key which is under the ∫dx button near the top right of the keypad.
Let’s say you want to enter 2 + 8i. You would type in 2 + 8, and then press the ∫dx key for i. Press the = key. The calculator shows both parts of the complex number: the real part "2", and the imaginary part "+8i".
To multiply (4 + 6i)(6 – 5i), enter the numbers. Make sure you use brackets as shown! Press the = key. You get 54 + 16i.
For any entry of complex numbers in rectangular form, use brackets around each complex number, as in (4 – 2i).
That means the “rθ” is on the left side of the screen. Again, this does not affect the normal arithmetic calculations you need to do, but it does activate the complex number buttons on the calculator. One of those is the angle key which is the D^{o}M’S key.
Let’s say you want to enter the complex number 2 angle 30^{o}. First make sure you are in degree mode (DEG is displayed at the top of the screen). Then type in 2, press the angle key (DMS), and then type 30. Press the = key. The calculator shows both parts of the complex number: the magnitude "2", and the angle "30".
To multiply (5 angle 30^{o})(6 angle 120^{o}), enter the numbers as shown. Press the = key. You get 30 angle 150^{o}.
Say you want to change 30 angle 150^{o} to rectangular format. There are two ways to do this depending on what complex mode you are in.
If you are in polar format mode (rθ), enter 30 angle 150^{o} and press =. Now change this to rectangular format by pressing 2ndF 9 to switch to rectangular format mode. The calculator tells you -25.98... + 15i. So 30 angle 150^{o } = 25.98... + 15i.
If you are in rectangular format mode (xy), enter 30 angle 150^{o} and press =. The calculator displays this in rectangular format as -25.98... + 15i.
Say you want to change 4 – 7i into polar format. Using one of the two methods above, you should get 8.06 angle -60.26^{o}.
Let's say you want to solve a quadratic equation. It must be written in descending order, like 5x^{2} − 8x − 1 = 0.
Press MODE and then 6 for EQUATION (pressing the down arrow will show this option). You are solving a quadratic equation so press 2 for QUAD.
The calculator now wants you to enter a value for a, b, and c. These are the coefficients on the quadratic equation ax^{2} + bx + c =0.
So for a, type in 5 and press the = key.
For b, it is a negative value so start by pressing the (−) button, then type 8 and press the = key.
For c, type in −1 the same and press the = key.
The calculator states the answers: X= 1: 1.716515139 2: -0.116515139
These are the two solutions to the quadratic equation.
Let’s say you want to solve a cubic equation. It also must be written in descending order, like 4x^{3} + 3x^{2} – 2x – 1 = 0. Press MODE and then 6 for EQUATION (pressing the down arrow will show this option). You are solving a cubic equation so press 3 for CUBIC.
The calculator will lead you through the solution by asking for a, b, c, and D. These are the coefficients for the general cubic equation ax^{3} + bx^{2} + cx + D = 0.
For 4x^{3} + 3x^{2} – 2x – 1 = 0 enter 4, 3, -2, and -1 in that order, pressing the = button to move from one choice to the next.
The calculator gives you the answers: X 1: -1 2: 0.640388203 3: -0.-390288203
These are the three solutions to the cubic equation.
Say the equation was 4x^{3} + 3x^{2} – 4x + 1 = 0.
The calculator gives you the answers: X= 1: -1.517526486 2: 0.383763242 ± 0.132164836i
Notice there is only a 1 and 2 on the left side of the screen. There is no 3.
This means there is only one real solution (X1 = -1.517526486) and two complex number solutions! The two complex solutions are X2 = 0.383763242 - 0.132164836i and X3 = 0.383763242 + 0.132164836i.
Let’s say that you are working with two linear equations. They must be in this format:
4x + 5y = 35 2x – 6y = 23
Press MODE and then 6 for EQUATION (pressing the down arrow will show this option). We are working with a system of two variable linear equations so press 0 for 2-VLE.
The calculator will lead you through the solution by asking for the coefficients for each equation moving left to right (a1, b1, c1, a2, b2, and c2).
a1 is the coefficient on the first variable in the first equation. So a1 = 4. Press 4 and hit =. It nows asks for b1 which is the coefficient on the second variable in the first equation. So b1 = 5. Press 5 and hit =. We do the same for c1 which is the constant value on the right side of the equation. Type 35 and hit =.
Go through the same process for the second equation working left to right (a2 = 2, b2 = -6, and c2 = 23).
Pressing = after entering c2 will give you the solution to the equation. X = 9.6 and Y = -0.6 (these are rounded to one decimal place). D represents the determinant of the matrix for this system of equations, and generally will not be used your math course.
The calculator stays in this mode until you go back to MODE and choose NORMAL.
If you were solving a system of three linear equations you would press MODE, then 6 for EQUATIONS, followed by 1 for 3-VLE. The process is the same except there will be three equations, and there will be a d1 for each equation (this will now be the constant)
CAUTION: The variables in your equations must be in the same order, and the constant term must always be on the right side. X represents the solution for the first variable in your equations, Y the second variable, and Z the third variable.
The Sharp EL-W516 calculator will solve a system of two or three linear equations using the 2-VLE and 3-VLE commands in MODE → EQN, but solving a system of four equations is not possible through this method.
This is where matrices come in. A matrix (plural: matrices) is an array of numbers, and they are often used to represent and solve systems of equations.
Let’s say we want to solve the system of equations 2p + q + 5r + s = 5 p + q – 3r – 4s = -1 3p + 6q – 2r + s = 8 2p + 2q + 2r – 3s = 2
The terms on the left side of the equal signs display an array of numbers. These numbers are the “coefficients” of the letter variables. These are highlighted in bold. 2p + 1q + 5r + 1s 1p + 1q – 3r – 4s 3p + 6q – 2r + 1s 2p + 2q + 2r – 3s
NOTE: The variables must be in the same order for all of the equations.
They will become this matrix on your calculator:
To enter this matrix in your calculator you need to be in matrix mode. Press MODE and then 4 for MATRIX.
Next press MATH and 2 for EDIT. A screen will appear with "matrix: 2 x 2" above a matrix with four blanks. The "2x2" represents the number of rows and columns required for the matrix. The blinking cursor should be on the first 2, which represents the number of rows in the matrix. Our matrix has 4 rows so type 4. The cursor will move to the second 2, which represents the number of columns. Our matrix has 4 columns so type 4. Press = to move down to the matrix.
Notice that the matrix on the screen has increased its number of blanks to represent our 4x4 matrix (the last row and last column are off of the screen).
Enter these numbers in the matrix above into your calculator exactly as you see them. Start by typing 2 and then pressing =. A 2 goes into the first blank (row 1, column 1) and the cursor advances to the next blank. Type 1 and press =, then 5 and press =. The screen now shifts to show the last column. Type 1 and press =. The first row is now filled and the cursor advances to the first blank in the second row.
Continue entering the rest of the numbers, including the negative signs. If you make a mistake, you can use the arrow keys to scroll back to the mistake and type over it.
Once all of the values have been entered, press the ON/C button to exit out of the number entry for the matrix.
Press the MATH key and choose number 4 for STORE. This is to store the matrix numbers in the calculator’s memory. You have four choices. Let’s choose matA. Press 0 to make that choice. "STORED!" will briefly display and you will return to the main "MATRIX MODE" screen..
If you think you made an entry error, you can always go back to survey your entries. Press the MATH key and then choice 1 for MATRIX. Choose matA by pressing the 0 key. matA shows on your screen. Press = to show the matrix. Use the arrows to scroll through the values. Correct any if necessary, and then go through the STORE procedure again.
Now to enter the numbers that are on the right side of the equal sign in the equations. You will enter those in another matrix. This will be a matrix with 4 rows and 1 column.
Go back to the main screen by hitting ON/C. Press the MATH key, and then 2 for EDIT. The 4x4 matrix you just finished entering will display, and the cursor will be on the first 4. You want to enter the matrix above. It has 4 rows so we type 4. This moves us to the second 4 which is the number of columns. Our new matrix only has 1 column so type 1 and hit =. The matrix displayed is now 4 rows by 1 column.
Replace the values currently in the matrix with the values in the matrix above. Type 5 and press =. Type -1 and press =. Type 8 and press =. Type 2 and press =. The matrix should now contain all of the values.
Press the ON/C button to exit. We need to save this matrix as well. Press MATH and STORE (number 4). Let’s save this as matB. Press 1. "STORED!" will briefly display and you will return to the main "MATRIX MODE" screen.
We have now entered all the equation numbers in matrix form. Think of the 4 equations now in matrix form like this:
To solve for these 4 variables, we will need to move the large matrix on the left to the other side of the equation. In algebra, we would be moving it over by dividing since it is attached to the variables by multiplication. Dividing is the same as multiplying by its inverse (using the exponent of -1). This all looks like this:
In terms of the calculator, we need to multiply matA^{-1} x matB.
Press the MATH key and then press 1 for MATRIX. Press 0 for matA. Press 2ndF and then 2 to access the x^{-1}. Your screen should now show matA^{-1}. Press the multiplication key. Press the MATH key and then press 1 for MATRIX. Press 1 for matB. Press the = key.
The calculator now provides the answers in matrix form. First it tells you that there are 4 rows and 1 column. The matrix is displayed below with the the numbers 2, 0.2, 0, and 0.8 (you'll need to use the down arrow to see the 0.8). In matrix form, this would look like this:
So you can see that p = 2, q = 0.2, r = 0, and s = 0.8. These are the solutions to the equations.
SOME CAUTIONS: • Since there are 4 variables, there are 4 equations and each variable in each equation MUST have a number attached to it. If a variable is missing, assume the number is a zero. • Make sure you keep the letter variables in the same order in each equation. • In each equation, there must be the number by itself on the right side of the equal sign.
Let’s say we want to calculate statistics for single variable data (e.g. 90, 80, 70, 60,and 50).
Press MODE and then 1 for STAT. Now press 0 for SD (single variable data).
First you need to make sure the memory is cleared out. Press 2ndF and then the MODE button to access CA to clear everything. Now type in the data. To recognize a number as part of the data, you need to press the DATA button (the CHANGE button in other modes) each time.
To enter 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 as data, start by typing in 90 and then press the DATA key. The calculator will now say DATA SET = 1. Each time you type a numberin, the calculator displays “DATA SET =” with a number. The number tells you howmany data numbers are now in memory.
Now type in 80 and press the DATA key.Type in 70 and then press the DATA key.Type in 60 and then press the DATA key. Type in 50 and then press the DATA key.
After 50 was typed in, the calculator screen should read “DATA SET = 5”.
Now to access the statistics, press the RCL key and then the statistic you want. The available statistics are shown above the keys on the numberpad (including the bottom row). These are one variable statistics, so they will all be values related to x.
Pressing RCL then 4 will give the mean.Pressing RCL then 5 will give the sample standard deviation.Pressing RCL then 6 will give the population standard deviation.Pressing RCL then 0 will give the number of values entered. Pressing RCL then . will give the sum of the values entered.Pressing RCL then (-) will give the sum of the squares of the values entered.
What if you made a mistake? Let’s say that 90 should have been 30. Use the up and down arrows to scroll through the list of data. The data is listed as X values (DATA SET = 1 has X: 90, for example), with a frequency F (we will use this below). Scroll through to find when X: 90 appears. Make sure the blinking cursor is beside the X. Type in the corrected value of 30 and press the DATA key or = key. Pressing ON/C will return you to the main screen without erasing your data. Let’s say we are working with a frequency distribution. A frequency distribution tells us how many times each data value appears in the data set. For example, in the data below 90 occurred 5 times, 80 appeared 2 times, 70 only once, and so on.
As before, go into MODE and choose STAT and SD. Clear the memory to enter this new data (2ndF MODE). You will be entering these pairs of numbers in an (X, F) format. You will use the (x, y) key for this.
Enter 90, press (x, y), enter 5, and then press DATA. You have just entered 90 with a frequency (F) of 5. Enter 80, press (x, y), enter 2, and then press DATA. Enter 70, press (x, y), enter 1, and then press DATA. Enter 60, press (x, y), enter 6, and then press DATA. Enter 50, press (x, y), enter 3, and then press DATA. The calculator should now display "DATA SET = 5".
Press the RCL key and then the statistic you want as before. Editing the values is possible using the up and down arrows as before.
The table below compares the time T in seconds with distance D in cm of an object rolling down an inclined plane.
Say you want the linear line of best fit through the points below. This will give an equation relating the time T (the independent variable) with the distance D (the dependent variable).
Press MODE, followed by 1 for STAT and then 1 for LINE (linear).
The data will be entered in ordered pairs in the form (T, D). T is first because it is the independent variable, and D is second because it is the dependent variable (the distance the object rolls depends on how long it has been rolling for). So the first ordered pair is (1,6), the second is (2, 23), and so on.
To enter (1, 6) type 1, press (x, y) to insert a comma, and then type 6. Press DATA (the "CHANGE" button) to enter the pair. The calculator will now say "DATA SET = 1".
Next enter (2, 23). Type 2, press (x, y), type 23, then press DATA. Continue like this with the rest of the data. Once it has all been entered the calculator should say "DATA SET = 5".
The equation of the straight line of best fit is y = a + bx, where x represent the independent variable and y represents the dependent variable.
To find the value of a, press RCL and then a (which is the “(“ key in normal use). To find the value of b, press RCL and then b (which is the “)” key in normal use). To find the correlation value r, press RCL and then r (which is the ÷ key in normal use).
a = -41.7 b = 35.9 r = 0.9837 (these numbers are all rounded). So the equation of the line of best fit is D = -41.7 + 35.9T.
The other lines of best fit work the same way.
For exponential regression of the form y = a e^{bx}, press MODE followed by 1 for STAT, and then 3 for E_EXP. Enter the data as above. The equation of the line of best fit is y = a e^{bx}. [The e in this equation is the value 2.718....] Find the values of a, b, and r in the same way.
a = 3.84 b = 0.786 r = 0.9734 (these numbers are all rounded). So the equation of the line of best fit is D = 3.84e^{0.786}^{T}.
For exponential regression of the form y = a b^{x}, press MODE followed by 1 for STAT, and then 7 for G_EXP. Enter the data as above. The equation of the line of best fit is y = a b^{x}.
a = 3.84 b = 2.19 r = 0.9734 (these numbers are all rounded). The equation of the line of best fit is D = 3.84(2.19)^{T}.
You would find the power line of regression in the same fashion. Choose MODE, STAT, and then 5 for POWER. Enter the data as above. The equation of the line of best fit is y = ax^{b}.
a = 5.93 b = 2.01 r = 0.9998 (these numbers are all rounded). So the equation of the line of best fit is D = 5.93T^{2.01}.
Your Sharp EL-W516 calculator can find the value of a first derivative for you. The calculator should be in NORMAL mode for this.
Say you wanted the value of the derivative of y = 4x^{2} + 8x – 3 at the point where x = 5.
Start by getting the d/dx command on your screen. Press 2ndF followed by the ∫dx button near the top right of the keypad.
Type the equation 4x^{2} + 8x – 3 into the brackets in the numerator of the fraction. To type the x, press the green ALPHA button and then RCL button, or hit RCL twice. Type the entire equation in.
Once the entire equation has been entered between the brackets, press the right arrow to enter the value for x. We want the value of the derivative at x = 5, so type in 5 next to the "X =" and press the = key.
The answer we get is 48.
The calculator is using an approximation formula to come up with this value. See the calculator instructions for the formula. The formula works well for smooth continuous functions.
Your Sharp EL-W516 calculator can find the value of a definite integral for you. The calculator should be in NORMAL mode for this.
Say you wanted the value of the integral of y = 5x + 1 between x = 1 and x = 2.
To use this feature, first press the integral command ∫dx key. You will find this near the top right of the keypad. An integral will appear with blanks for the lower and upper limits, and the equation.
The cursor starts in the box for the lower limit. The lower limit is x = 1, so type 1. Press the up arrow to move to the upper limit. The upper limit is x = 2, so type 2. Press the right arrow to move to the box for the equation. The integral should now show the lower and upper limits.
Next, you need to type in the equation. Start by typing 5. To type the x, use the green ALPHA button and then press the RCL button to access x. Or, press the RCL button twice. Type the entire equation in.
Once everything is typed in you can press the = key. The calculator will show "BUSY" near the top right of the screen while it calculates the answer.
The answer we get is 8 1/2.